What Is Three Language Formula?

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In the vibrant tapestry of India’s cultural and linguistic heritage, the Three Language Formula stands as a cornerstone of promoting multilingualism and celebrating linguistic diversity. Envisioned as a linguistic policy for education, this formula was introduced to facilitate a balanced approach to language learning across the diverse regions of the country.

What Is Three Language Formula?

The genesis of the Three Language Formula can be traced back to the recommendations put forth by the Kothari Commission in 1968. This educational commission proposed a framework to encourage the study of three languages: the regional language, Hindi (as the link language), and English.

The Triad Of Languages

  • Regional Language: The first language taught in schools is the mother tongue or the regional language, ensuring a strong foundation in the language native to the region where the school is situated. This promotes cultural identity and preserves the richness of regional languages.
  • Hindi or State Language: Hindi, being one of the most widely spoken languages in India, holds significance as the link language. In states where Hindi is not the primary language, a second language is often Hindi. However, in Hindi-speaking states, this slot may be filled by a modern Indian language or another language as per state preferences.
  • English: As the global lingua franca, English holds immense importance in the realms of higher education, commerce, and international communication. It serves as a link to the wider world and opens avenues for higher education and employment opportunities.

Implementation And Variations

The Three Language Formula is not uniformly implemented across all states in India. Each state has the autonomy to adapt this formula according to its linguistic and cultural context. Some states follow the formula rigorously, while others have their variations based on regional languages and preferences.

Controversies And Debates

Over the years, the Three Language Formula has encountered debates and controversies, particularly regarding the prominence of Hindi as a compulsory language in non-Hindi speaking regions. This has sparked discussions about linguistic imposition and the need for flexibility in language learning, respecting regional identities and linguistic diversity.

Significance And Future

Despite debates, the Three Language Formula remains pivotal in fostering linguistic harmony and promoting a multilingual populace equipped to engage in a diverse society and globalized world. It underscores the importance of linguistic diversity as a cultural asset while emphasizing the practicality of multilingualism in a rapidly evolving world.


The Three Language Formula embodies India’s commitment to linguistic diversity and unity. It reflects the nation’s ethos of inclusivity and recognition of the richness encapsulated in its myriad languages. As India progresses in a global landscape, this formula continues to evolve, balancing tradition and modernity, while cherishing the linguistic mosaic that defines the nation’s identity.


What Is Meant By 3 Language Formula?

The national education policy of 1968 introduced the three-language formula, meaning that apart from Hindi and English, there should be a third language which is a part of modern India and must be used for education in Hindi-speaking states.

What Is Three-Language Formula According To Ncf 2005?

First language: It will be the mother tongue or regional language. Second language: In Hindi speaking states, it will be other modern Indian languages or English. In non-Hindi speaking states, it will be Hindi or English. Third Language: In Hindi speaking states, it will be English or a modern Indian language.

What Are The Three-Language Formula Recommended By Kothari Commission?

The formula as enunciated in the 1968 National Policy Resolution which provided for the study of “Hindi, English and modern Indian language (preferably one of the southern languages) in the Hindi speaking states and Hindi, English and the Regional language in the non-Hindi speaking States”.

What Is The Three-Language Formula Testbook?

The Three-Language Formula as stated in the 1968 Policy is: The First language: It has to be studied must be the mother tongue or the regional language. The Second language: In Hindi speaking States, the second language will be English or some other modern Indian language.

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